Current Project: 2020-2023

RLA 7/025 – Strengthening Capacities in Marine and Coastal Environments Using Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques.

Previous Projects:

RLA 7/022 – Strengthening Regional Monitoring and Response for Sustainable Marine and Coastal Environments (ARCAL CXLV) (2018-2019).

Participating Institutions:

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), CONICET, UNMDP.

Research Areas::

  • Ocean Acidification.
  • Chemical Contamination.
  • Eutrophication.
  • Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Marine Biotoxins.
  • Microplastic contamination.

Centro Científico Tecnológico Mar del Plata (CCT-Mar del Plata), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET).

Research Areas::

  • Communication

Instituto de Geología de Costas y Cuaternario (IGCyC), UNMDP, CIC.

Research Areas::

  • Chemical Contamination.
  • Eutrophication.

Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA).

Research Areas::

  • Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Marine Biotoxins.

Servicio de Hidrografía Naval

Research Areas::

  • Ocean Acidification.
  • Eutrophication.

THE PROBLEM

The acidification of the oceans produced by the alteration of the carbonate system and the decrease in the pH of the environment, as a consequence of the use of fossil fuels, has important consequences on different organisms, many of them with calcareous structures -clams, mussels, scallops, corals, crabs, sea urchins, among others. These changes can alter ecosystems and the ecosystem services that these organisms provide, putting the food security and livelihoods of millions of people at risk. Especially in coastal systems where fishing resources and recreational activities are of vital importance for local and regional economic development.

Additionally, during the last decades the phenomena of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have taken on an important connotation on the Argentine coasts due to the temporal-spatial increase, in relation to climate change and its effects on health and economic damages related mainly to fishing resources, the exploitation of bivalves and tourism. 

The discharge into the environment of toxic chemical substances produced by man has generated great concern due to the risk it implies for human health and the environment, constituting land-based sources of marine pollution. These include everyday products with industrial, agricultural, and urban applications, such as agrochemicals, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum hydrocarbons, and a wide variety of industrial pollutants. Likewise, Persistent Organic Compounds, currently banned worldwide, constitute a continuous threat to the environment, given their high persistence, ubiquity, hydrophobicity and high affinity for microplastics.

On the other hand, although Argentina has made progress in the regulation and/or proposals for laws that allow the regulation of single-use plastics and microplastics from personal care products, the problem persists. In this sense, the presence of both macro and microplastics in different environmental compartments from coastal ecosystems of the South Atlantic has been evidenced. River ecosystems of regional importance that flow into coastal areas together with large urban settlements and different productive activities, imply the need for greater knowledge regarding the transport, presence and characteristics of plastic waste in the country.

INFORMATION FOR ACTION

Argentina's participation in the REMARCO network gives us the opportunity to strengthen our capacities for the study of our coastal and marine systems, based on stressors related to Global Change (acidification, eutrophication, organic and inorganic contaminants, microplastics and HABs), learn what is the impact on our coastal zones and how this can affect different ecosystem services in the study areas.

The incorporation of the IIMyC to the Regional Observatory of Ocean Acidification, the establishment of an analytical laboratory and the development of capacities for permanent monitoring, will provide information for the report of indicator 14.3.1 at the country level. On the other hand, support will be given to experimental studies on the possible effects of Ocean Acidification on key marine species as community builders and of commercial importance, which allow adaptation and mitigation strategies for society.

Until now, the factors that trigger harmful algal blooms (HABs) and the inter-annual variation of toxicity in the different microalgal species are unknown. It is for this reason that intensive monitoring has been implemented in our country in different areas of the Atlantic coast, and information is expected to be provided in order to develop early warning programs.

The first studies of microplastics and other contaminants in important marine-coastal areas such as estuaries in the Province of Buenos Aires, as well as in coastal marine areas influenced by sewage treatment plants and storm drains, will be a source of information for management plans for these socio-ecological systems.

It is essential, from a national perspective, to create action plans for a system of Observation and Monitoring of marine-coastal zones for sustainable development and protection of the coasts. In this sense, REMARCO Argentina joins the “Network of Networks” of the Pampa Azul Initiative (https://www.pampazul.gob.ar/). Pampa Azul is an interministerial initiative (7 ministries) that seeks to advance research, development and innovation that contribute to national sovereignty and security and social, economic and environmentally sustainable development. Additionally, it is proposed to develop greater social awareness of the services and benefits provided by the sea, deploying a specific communication and scientific dissemination agenda. To this end, it has medium- and long-term planning that promotes multidisciplinary approaches and inter-institutional synergies.

Country Members:

Betina J. Lomovasky. PhD in Biological Sciences, Marine Ecology.

Grupo de Ecosistemas Marinos y Costeros y Cambio Climático. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar Del Plata (UNMDP).

Role in the Project:  Argentine National Coordinator. Technical manager of the Ocean Acidification component.     

Contact info: lomovask@mdp.edu.ar

Ocean acidification. Evaluation of the effects of multiple stressors related to Climate Change (CC) such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation, on species of commercial interest through field and laboratory experimentation and its relationship with in situ oceanography. Evaluation of the effects of CC on marine-coastal ecosystem functions and services.

Utilización de técnicas de isótopos estables en bivalvos para detectar variaciones/ cambio climático en diferentes escalas temporales (interanual, décadas, miles años) en poblaciones actuales y fósiles.

Use of stable isotope techniques in bivalves to detect variations/climate change on different time scales (interannual, decades, thousands of years) in current and fossil populations.

CONICET Senior Researcher.

Valeria Sabrina Aguilera. Bachelor of Social Communication. Diploma in Public Communication of Science.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Mar del Plata.

Role in the Project: Communication Focal Point, Argentina.

Contact info: sabriaguilera@gmail.com / 5492235684788

Degree in Social Communication with orientation in Journalism, graduated from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata. She has a Higher University Diploma in Public Communication from the science. Faculty of Social Sciences of the National Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. She is responsible for the Department of Communication and Institutional Relations of CONICET Mar del Plata since 2014. She is in charge of the dissemination and promotion of scientific activities and the organization of events for different audiences. She plans and manages the organization's communication actions at the local level and coordinates social action and research projects.

Mauricio Javier Díaz Jaramillo. Marine Biologist.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), CONICET-UNMdP, Grupo Estresores Múltiples en el Ambiente (EMA).

Role in the Project:  Researcher.

Contact info: mdiazjaramillo@conicet.gov.ar

Dr. Díaz-Jaramillo carried out his doctoral thesis in Cs. Environmental (Universidad de Concepción, Chile), where he developed different tools for monitoring areas chronically impacted by the petrochemical industry in coastal ecosystems. His research work is mainly based on the ecotoxicology of benthic organisms and environmental chemistry of both organic and inorganic contaminants, as well as the influence of environmental factors on their bioavailability and effects. He is co-director of the recently formed group "Multiple Stressors in the Environment" which corresponds to a multidisciplinary group of researchers focused on the study and development of cost-effective tools for monitoring pollutants in transition environments. He is currently developing different studies related to the monitoring and characterization of microplastics in both marine and estuarine environments.

Mariana González. Bachelor’s Degree and PhD in Biological Sciences.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC)-CONICET-UNMdP.

Role in the Project:  Researcher.

Contact info: mariana.gonzalez@conicet.gov.ar

Dr. González did her doctorate in the study of the factors that modify the remediation of persistent organic pollutants in soils. During her postdoctoral studies, she deepened the study of emerging pollutants in basins in the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires, and developed tools for evaluating their availability. Currently, her research work is framed in the study of organic and inorganic contaminants in sediments and soils associated with riparian systems. It is based on the analysis of the processes that regulate its environmental distribution and bioavailability, as well as the mechanisms that regulate adsorption-desorption, the interrelationship between contaminants and the influence of physical-chemical and biological processes. She directs the research group "Multiple Stressors in the Environment" that focuses on the study and development of cost-effective tools for monitoring pollutants and establishing prevention / remediation measures.

Marcelo Pablo Hernando. Biologist.

Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica.

Role in the Project:  Technical manager for Harmful Algal Blooms.        

Contact info: mhernando@cnea.gov.ar – 1151385618

Dr. Marcelo Hernando has carried out research work related to high-latitude marine phytoplankton for more than 25 years, evaluating temporal and structural variations of complete microalgal communities, as well as unialgal populations in response to climate change. His research has focused on the effect of variations in solar radiation, evaluating physiological changes, production of oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, generation of protective compounds in exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the short and long term. The research he has developed contributes to a better understanding of the carbon cycle in the oceans by evaluating physiological aspects of phytoplankton in terms of global climate change. Since 2010 he has incorporated the study of the consequences of the increase in temperature and the decrease in salinity as a consequence of the increase in glacial melting on the coasts of the Antarctic Peninsula. On the other hand, he has carried out monitoring of phytoplankton communities in the Beagle Channel with special emphasis on harmful microalgae that produce the phenomenon known as “red tide”. In freshwater environments he evaluates the physiological responses of toxin-producing cyanobacteria to changes in temperature and UVR.

Lucía Carolina Kahl. Oceanographer.

Departamento de Oceanografía. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (SHN, Ministerio de Defensa)

Role in the Project:  Researcher/Collaborator in Ocean Acidification component       

Contact info:  carolina.kahl@gmail.com / ckahl@hidro.gov.ar

Field of action in physical oceanography and marine biogeochemistry, with an interest in climate change and ocean acidification. Specialty in the study of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. She did her undergraduate thesis on the study of CO2 fluxes and her doctorate on the study of the dynamics of the carbonate system associated with oceanographic and biogeochemical processes. Her doctoral thesis included the analysis of pCO2, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) data, and parameters derived from them. Professional experience in field work in oceanographic campaigns, working mainly in sampling and subsequent measurement of alkalinity and DIC. She works with extensive databases and satellite images.

Tomás Atilio Luppi. Teaching researcher..

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMYC) CONICET, UNMDP

Role in the Project:  Researcher

Contact info: taluppi@mdp.edu.ar

En la actualidad soy Investigador Principal de CONICET y Profesor Titular de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Mi trabajo de investigación se centran en el estudio de distintos aspectos de la historia de vida y ecología de crustáceos decápodos en todas sus fases de vida, embrionaria, larval, juvenil y adulto. Últimamente, los proyectos en los que estoy involucrado estudian como la variabilidad ambiental, especialmente la derivada de efectos antrópicos como el descenso de pH, aumento de temperatura, luz artificial y sonido, afectan al cangrejo Neohelice granulata, especie modelo en investigación científica del Atlántico sudoccidental.

Daniel Emilio Martínez. Geologist.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMYC) CONICET, UNMDP

Role in the Project:  Researcher.        

Contact info: demarti@mdp.edu.ar / 0223 6870939

Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology, mainly on groundwater, but comprehensively covering the hydrological cycle: atmosphere, groundwater, surface water. Hydrogeochemical modeling with specific software (NETPATH, PHREEQC). Stable isotopes of water and environmental isotopes. Water dating with tansent tracers and radionuclides: CFCs, 3H/3He, 3H, 14C, 4He, 81Kr. Conceptual models of hydrological and hydrogeological processes based on chemical, isotopic and residence time tracers.

Mirta Luján Menone. Biologist.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMYC) CONICET, UNMDP

Role in the Project:  Researcher.

Contact info: mirta.menone@gmail.com / +54 223 4970508

Professor at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMDP) since 2000 and Researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) since 2005.

Her research focuses on the study of aquatic contamination, with emphasis on the sublethal effects of currently used pesticides on macrophytes, fish and other non-target organisms. She currently works on the biomonitoring of pesticides in current use (insecticides, fungicides) and the use of early warning systems (biomarkers) such as biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and genetics (micronuclei, DNA fragmentation). Her international experience includes: a training stay at Trent University (Canada) during her doctoral studies, a post-doctorate at the IGB Berlin (Germany) with a Scholarship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and exchanges in the last years with colleagues from Brazil, Chile, Germany and Canada.

Karina S.B. Miglioranza. PhD in Biological Sciences.

Lab de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental. FCEyN. IIMyC CONICET-UNMDP.

Role in the Project: Member Researcher.

Contact info: kmiglior@mdp.edu.ar, kmiglior@gmail.com /+54 223 5419946

For 25 years we have been working on the study of the dynamics of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic (freshwater and marine) and terrestrial ecosystems, covering air pollution, phytoremediation studies, adsorption-desorption processes in soils, isotopic techniques for dating sediments. We cover studies of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs (polybrominated). In addition, we include pesticides in current use, such as chlorpyrifos and glyphosate, among others. We work in different environments including: water (surface, underground and rainwater), soils, sediments, plants (macrophytes, epiphytes, foodstuffs, trees), animals (invertebrates and vertebrates) and air. This through passive atmospheric samplers through different analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography with electron capture detector and mass spectrometry. In addition, we work in collaboration with other groups using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry or iodine and fluorescence array detectors. Likewise, work has been done on the study of enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers.

Emiliano Ocampo. Researcher in the area of Biology.

Complejo Universitario UNMdP, IIMYC-FCEyN (UNMDP-CONICET).

Role in the Project:  Researcher.        

Contact info: eocampo@mdp.edu.ar / 2236871074

Throughout my training I gained experience in handling molecular genetic, histological, morphological analysis, experimental, and statistical tools, among others. I have applied such tools to answer questions of basic science, such as the resolution of taxonomic conflicts, the understanding of the evolutionary patterns of species, the understanding of ecological processes, among others. I have also used these tools to understand the internal anatomy of certain organisms so that I can deduce aspects of their reproductive biology. I am currently developing two lines of research based on the Neohelice granulata animal model. In one of them I explore the population connectivity of the species through genetic markers. In the other, I analyze the effect of the acidity of the sea on the quality of the larvae and embryos of the species.

Ana Paula Osiroff. Bachelor of Oceanography.

Departamento de Oceanografía. Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (SHN, Ministerio de Defensa)

Role in the Project:  Researcher in the Acidification component     

Contact info:  aosiroff@hidro.gov.ar / Tel. +54 9 1151630380

Participation in various research projects of the Naval Hydrography Service with experience in regional studies of the regional oceanic circulation of the Southwest Atlantic, having participated in more than 20 oceanographic campaigns with responsibilities for the acquisition, processing and subsequent analysis of oceanographic data. As part of the CO2 group of the Ocean Dynamics section of the Naval Hydrography Service, I am currently involved in the study of sea-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, as well as in projects related to the study of ocean acidification. I have experience in the acquisition, analysis and subsequent quality control of the parameters that involve the carbonate system, in particular in the determination of alkalinity and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and I have acquired experience in the planning of sampling and subsequent measurements of the same as well also in subsequent analysis.

Orlando Quiroz Londoño. . Geologist / Hydrogeologist.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMYC) CONICET, UNMDP / Instituto de Geología de Costas y Cuaternario (IGCyC)

Role in the Project:  Investigador componente Eutrofización

Contact info:  (223) 153036220

Geologist with training in hydrogeology, geographic information systems and remote sensing. Experience in hydrogeological studies at a regional and local scale with an emphasis on groundwater and surface water. Currently focused on the application of stable isotopes of water. Experience in implementation and maintenance of hydrogeological monitoring networks, design and implementation of hydrogeological geographic databases.

Asunción Romanelli. PhD in Biological Sciences.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMYC) CONICET, UNMDP

Role in the Project:  Collaborating researcher on the subject “eutrophication”.        

Contact info: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar; asuncionromanelli@gmail.com

Dr. in Cs. Biologists and Associate Researcher of CONICET. She has work experience and specialized academic training in limnology and isotope hydrology. Her research topic focuses on the study of hydrological and nutrient dynamics in the Pampas wetlands, biogeochemistry and design and application of Geographic Information Systems as a tool to support decision-making in the management of Water Resources. . Regarding the research projects under her direction, at an international level, in 2016-February 2020 he directed and coordinated the project entitled "Identification of nitrogen sources and assessment of trophic state condition in Pampean shallow lakes, Argentina, by using stable nitrogen isotopes and biophysical attributes”, subsidized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), currently directs the projects entitled “Evaluation of changes in the danger of contamination of groundwater and surface water under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The Basin of the Laguna de Los Padres (Southeast Buenos Aires) as a case study”, PIP 0350/14 and “Evaluation of nitrate sources and the trophic status of groundwater-dependent Pampas lagoons in southeast Buenos Aires” PICT 1147/17.

Silvia Inés Romero. Oceanographer, PhD in Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences

Servicio de Hidrografía Naval (SHN, Ministerio de Defensa); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires (UBA), Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Facultad de la Armada, Universidad de la Defensa Nacional.

Role in the Project:  Collaborator in Eutrophication Index       

Contact info:  si.romero.escm@fa.undef.edu.ar / sromero@hidro.gov.ar  /   sir.oceano@gmail.com

Area of interest: Southwest Atlantic. Bio-physical interactions in marine ecosystems of the continental shelf, the slope and marine fronts. In particular, study of the space-time variability of satellite chlorophyll (at different scales) as an indicator of phytoplankton and ecosystem health. Relationship with water masses and the mechanisms that control the dynamics of the mixed layer and vertical flows. She is a specialist in the technological areas of quantitative remote sensing and experimental physical oceanography.

María Soledad Yusseppone. PhD in Biology.

Grupo de Ecosistemas Marinos y Costeros y Cambio Climático. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar Del Plata (UNMDP).

Role in the Project:  Investigadora en componente Acidificación del Océano.        

Contact info: msyusseppone@gmail.com – +5491140602461

Degree and PhD in Biology (UBA, Argentina). Postgraduate Diploma in Bases and Tools for the Integrated Management of Climate Change (UNQUI-UNJ and MAyDS, Argentina). Postdoctoral research on Climate Change (CC) and bivalves (IIMyC, CONICET-UNMDP). Assistant Researcher at CONICET. Her current studies focus on the evaluation of the effects of multiple stressors related to CC (warming, acidification and deoxygenation), on species of commercial interest, with scope in marine biology and biochemistry. Specialty in malacology, ecotoxicology and ecophysiology. Professional experience in the study of molluscs and other aquatic organisms for environmental impact assessment and water quality monitoring. In recent years, he has received training in the field of ocean acidification (OA). He participates in national and international projects in the field of OA, developing sampling techniques, carbonate system measurements and OA impact assessment techniques under experimental conditions.  

Progress and Challenges

REMARCO Argentina collaborates in the formation of a national interinstitutional and interdisciplinary network in order to address the problem from different points of view. As a country, observatories will be established to measure the different indicators of SDG 14 (specifically 14.1.1a,b and 14.3.1). Nuclear tools and techniques will be used for this purpose and we will have the opportunity to cooperate with other Latin American and Caribbean countries through the intercalibration of the techniques to be developed and the possibility of using already established capacity in the country members of the network.

At the national level, we hope to be able to contribute with the national, provincial and/or municipal authorities in order to provide the tools acquired through the implementation of the project for the consolidation of national and local plans in relation to responding to SDG 14.